Hematuria (blood in urine)
Although blood in a child’s urine can be alarming, it is often not a sign of significant disease. Between nine and 18% of normal individuals have some hematuria. However, blood in the urine can be a sign of other medical conditions requiring treatment so seek care.
Hematuria, or blood in urine, can happen for many reasons. In fact, there are at least 50 different causes of hematuria in children. Blood in the urine is often not a sign of significant disease. In many patients, no specific cause is found; however, hematuria may be a sign of infection, stone disease or urinary tract cancer.
Hematuria can start from any place along the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate and urethra.
Hematuria itself does not have any symptoms other than red urine, in some cases. The conditions that cause the blood in the urine may produce symptoms.
- Urine dipstick test — If test is positive, the amount is often determined by looking at the urine with a microscope. If three or more red blood cells (RBC) are seen per high power field on two of three specimens, we may recommend further testing to determine a cause.
- Medical history
- Physical examination
- Laboratory analysis
- Evaluate for protein (a sign of kidney disease)
- Check for evidence of a urinary tract infection
- Determine blood cell shape, which helps to determine the bleeding’s origin
- Measure serum creatinine (a measure of kidney function)
- X-rays of the kidneys and ureters to detect kidney masses, tumors of the ureters and urinary stones
Treatment is based on the condition, symptoms and medical history along with the cause of the hematuria.